Reading Interventions - Uncategorized


Reciprocal Teaching

Reciprocal Teaching is an instructional approach designed to enhance student comprehension of text. Students engage in group discussion using four strategies: summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting.

The summarizer highlights the key ideas within the text. The questioner will ask questions based on uncertainties within the text or in connection to other ideas or texts previously discussed. The clarifier will address confusing aspects of the texts and try to answer questions posed by the questioner. The predictor will make guesses on what the upcoming text is about based on the title of the story, storyline, pictures, foreshadowing, etc.

EBI Brief for the Reciprocal Teaching

Social Competence Intervention (SCI)

SCI is a social competence intervention developed by Stichter et al. (2010) that combines both cognitive-behavioral and applied behavior analysis principals within a group-based structure. Specifically, the intervention is designed to enhance the social competence needs of elementary, middle school, and high school youth with social skill deficits. Each version provides structure, consistency, and scaffolding for three specific age ranges (Elementary: 6-10; Adolescent: 11-14; High School: 14-18) to assist in skill acquisition and maintenance. It is best used for the HFA population, and others who exhibit similar social skills deficits. This intervention is structured with scaffolded instruction in the following targeted social skills units: recognizing facial expressions, sharing ideas using the appropriate speaker and listener skills, turn taking in conversations, understanding feelings and emotions, and problem solving.

EBI Brief for the Social Competence Intervention (SCI)

SCI Website with information and resources:

Opportunities to Respond

This intervention has been shown to be successful in multiple classroom settings such as during the use of direct instruction, classwide peer tutoring, and computer-assisted instruction. An OTR is described as a teacher behavior (question, prompt, cue) that invites or solicits an individual student response or a unison response. These student responses can be verbal (i.e. answering a question), gestured (i.e. giving a thumbs up or thumbs down, response cards), or written (i.e. providing answer on a whiteboard). After the student(s) have responded the teacher then provides specific feedback on the student’s responses.

EBI Brief for Opportunities to Respond



CW-FIT is a behavioral intervention designed to explicitly teach and reinforce appropriate social behaviors through the use of a game like activity that can be implemented within the general education classroom setting. This intervention can be strategically implemented during “problem” times of the day to decrease problem behavior. CW- FIT incorporates multiple research-based behavioral strategies including direct instruction of skills, self and peer management, extinction by removing reinforcement (i.e. withholding attention when problem behaviors occur) as well as differential reinforcement of alternative.

EBI Brief for CW-FIT

Tutoring Buddy

Tutoring Buddy Letter Sounds (TBLS) is a computer-aided teaching tool designed to teach letter sound correspondence using incremental rehearsal. The program has been used successfully with children between the ages of 4 and 6. Using TBLS interventionists preform a brief assessment of letter sound knowledge and the software selects known and unknown letters for instruction. TBLS is a multi-purpose tool. It can be used to:

  1. Identify students who would most benefit from supplemental instruction (screening takes about 1 minute per student on average)
  2. Teach letter-sound correspondence effectively and efficiently (on average 5 minutes per session)
  3. Monitor student response to the intervention- progress-monitoring data is collected and charted automatically.
  4. Inform instruction by showing teachers which letter sounds are known by none, some, and all students.

Setting: Individual

Focus Area: Acquisition and Fluency

EBI Brief Template Tutoring Buddy

Tutoring Buddy Evidence Brief



2015-07-07 14:48:06Uncategorized

Definition: Changes content in order to allow access and for the material(s) to be appropriate for the individual.

Why it matters: Modifications are required in order to provide FAPE.

Example of use: A student in a general education Geometry class is assessed by his ability to identify basic shapes only.


Farah, Y. N. (2013). Through Another’s eyes: Modification or accommodation in standardized testing? Gifted Child Today, 36(3), 209-212.

Niebling, B. C., & Elliott, S. N. (2005). Testing accommodations and inclusive assessment practices. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 31(1), 1-6. doi:10.1177/073724770503100101


2015-07-07 14:46:25Uncategorized

Definition: A change in the way a test or assessment is administered or responded to by the student. Categorized by setting, timing, scheduling, presentation, and method of responding.

Why it matters: Accommodations are required by law (IDEA, NCLB).

Example of use: Putting materials in braille for a student that is blind or giving extra time on a reading test for a student with a learning disability.


Farah, Y. N. (2013). Through Another’s eyes: Modification or accommodation in standardized testing? Gifted Child Today, 36(3), 209-212.

Niebling, B. C., & Elliott, S. N. (2005). Testing accommodations and inclusive assessment practices. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 31(1), 1-6. doi:10.1177/073724770503100101

Task Analyses

2015-07-07 14:45:08Uncategorized

Definition: Required for Criterion Referenced Assessments. Breaking down of a academic or behavioral task into component skills in order to sequence instruction and target intervention.

Why it matters: It allows for clear, sequenced, and measurable instruction and assessment of progress towards complex academic or behavioral tasks.

Example of use: A teacher wants to teach a student how to put his shoes on. She creates a task analyses: can identify his shoes, can find matching pair of shoes, can put each shoe on the correct foot, and tie shoelaces.


Hughes, S. (1982). Another Look at Task Analysis. Journal Of Learning Disabilities, 15(5),

Wynne, S. A. (2008). AEPA 22 Special Education. Boston: XAMonline.

Functional Analyses

2015-07-07 14:42:16Uncategorized

Definition: Systematically manipulating potential variables that maintain a behavior through alternating test and control conditions. Common variables tested include escape, attention, and access to tangibles.

Why it matters: It systematically evidences the function of a behavior. This information can be used to create an effective intervention plan. It is a key component of an effective FBA.

Example of use: A teacher conducts a functional analyses for a student in her class and begins with attention. Data is collected on the target behaviors across all conditions. The teacher begins by giving the student attention regardless of behavior until 2 minutes is over or the target behavior occurs (control condition). The teacher then provides attention to the student only after the target behavior occurs (test condition). This should be repeated at least once more but should be repeated several times. Next, the teacher tests escape from demands and access to tangibles in the same manner.


Fahmie, T. A., Iwata, B. A., Querim, A. C., & Harper, J. M. (2013). Test-specific control conditions for functional analyses. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 46(1), 61. doi:10.1002/jaba.9

Kunnavatana, S. S., Bloom, S. E., Samaha, A. L., & Dayton, E. (2013). Training teachers to conduct trial-based functional analyses. Behavior Modification, 37(6), 707-722. doi:10.1177/0145445513490950

Anecdotal Observation

2015-07-07 14:39:42Uncategorized

Definition: A narrative, or story, of the events occurring during an observation is recorded.

Why it matters: It can be helpful in guiding future data collection by providing context and information not provided through other collection methods. However, it only represents a single moment, is hard to turn into measurable data, and can be cumbersome. It is not effective for progress monitoring or intervention evaluation.

Example of use: A teacher is having trouble determining the best way to collect data and measure the progress of a student’s off-task behavior. He asks the school psychologist to conduct to anecdotal observations. They use these observations to decide the what behaviors to measure and the best way to measure them.


Adamson, R. M., & Wachsmuth, S. T. (2014). A Review of Direct Observation Research within the Past Decade in the Field of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 39(4), 181-189. Smith, R. G., & Iwata, B. A. (1997). Antecedent influences on behavior disorders. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(2), 343-375. doi:10.1901/jaba.1997.30-343

Heward, W. L. (2003). Ten faulty notions about teaching and learning that hinder the effectiveness of special education. The Journal of Special Education, 36(4), 186-205. doi:10.1177/002246690303600401