Behavior Interventions - Acquisition Interventions: The student needs help learning the appropriate behavior

 

Self-Management

Although there is a wealth of existing behavioral interventions, many rely solely on teacher implementation, require significant attention, and may be difficult to apply consistently (Briesch & Chafouleas, 2009).  In contrast, self-management interventions make students responsible for tracking their own behavior.  At the core of self-management, is self-monitoring where students are provide with the definitions of target behaviors and prompted to record their performance during instruction.  By becoming aware of their own behavior, students are given the opportunity to recruit naturally occurring reinforcers.  Several components are often used in addition to self-monitoring including goal setting, self-charting, and self-evaluation paired with reinforcement (Briesch & Chafouleas, 2009).

Video Modeling and Video Self-Modeling for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Video modeling involves the use of a video taped recording in which an individual is presented as correctly performing a given task.  Students are able to learn the task by viewing a correctly executed example.  In the case of video self-modeling, the visual example of the task is created by the student.  Theoretically, the self-modeling may improve the impact of the intervention by enhancing student attention and self-efficacy through the experience of viewing themselves successfully performing the target skill, however, research indicates that student outcomes associated video monitoring compared to video self-monitoring are not significantly different (Bellini & Akullian, 2007) and either approach is acceptable.

Say Show Check

Each of the classroom rules and why adhering to each rule is important is verbalized to the class. Modeling what adherence to each rule would look like and what non-adherence to each rule would look like is next. Students then scrutinize non-adherence, re-practice appropriate rule behavior, and are praised for demonstrating proper rule following. This intervention is consistent with the Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) Model, and offers an example of how such a model would work in a single classroom.

 

  • Full Intervention Brief: Say Show Check
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    Active Teaching of Rules

    This is intervention provides a framework to assist teaching in the use of modeling practice and feedback to instruction classroom behavioral expectations. The intervention starts with the explicit display of rules in each classroom environment followed by a review and discussion of the rules with the students. This is then followed by having individual students model the appropriate behavior focused upon in the rule. Finally, when children subsequently exhibit the desired behavior they are immediately praised. This intervention is related to direct instruction methodologies, which are supported by a substantial literature base. This intervention can be followed up with a contingent observation procedure (sit and watch) for children who exhibit misbehavior afterwards. This intervention is related to direct instruction methodologies, which are supported by a substantial literature base.

     

    Sit and Watch

    This classic intervention was designed to provide a simple method to aid a child in the acquisition of desired behavior through observing other children behave appropriately. Specifically, using a modified time-out procedure, the student is removed from an activity and instructed both why they were removed and what the appropriate behavior would have been. Then the child is instructed to observe appropriate behavior for a short time prior to reengaging in the activity. Finally, when the child behaves appropriately, they are immediately praised. This intervention can be used as a follow-up to the “Active teaching of classroom rules” intervention, also found in this book.