Reading Interventions - Reading Interventions


Word Boxes

Word boxes are an appropriate intervention to use with a whole class, small groups, or individual children. This intervention is intended to help with the acquisition of phonemic awareness skills. Word boxes consist of connected boxes that represent the number of sounds or distinct phonemes in a word. The words that are used in this intervention should be part of a student’s speaking vocabulary, but not necessarily their reading vocabulary. Word boxes can be used to segment the sounds in words, match letters to sounds, and spell words.

EBI Brief for Word Boxes

Listening Passage Preview

Listening Passage Preview is an intervention that can be used to increase the accuracy with which students read. It is design to increase reading fluency, but focuses more on the accuracy than the rate with which students read. The teacher or interventionist reads the previously selected passage aloud for as the student follows along. While the passage is being read through the first time, the student(s) is instructed to follow along. Once the reading has been completed, the student will then read the same passage aloud. This intervention can be conducted one on one, or in a small-group setting by having the teacher read aloud then partnering children to read aloud to one another. Although the intervention is called Listening Passage Preview, it is probably best to read only two sentences at a time rather than the entire passage.

EBI Brief for the Listening Passage Preview

Phrase Drill

Phrase drill is an effective error correction procedure designed to provide multiple opportunities to respond and promote generalization of reading words in text. Phrase drill is addresses reading fluency, and is best for students who are able to read most words, but do so slowly. The overall goal of Phrase drill is to increase the accuracy with which students read to help them become more fluent readers.

EBI Brief for the Phrase Drill

Reciprocal Teaching

Reciprocal Teaching is an instructional approach designed to enhance student comprehension of text. Students engage in group discussion using four strategies: summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting.

The summarizer highlights the key ideas within the text. The questioner will ask questions based on uncertainties within the text or in connection to other ideas or texts previously discussed. The clarifier will address confusing aspects of the texts and try to answer questions posed by the questioner. The predictor will make guesses on what the upcoming text is about based on the title of the story, storyline, pictures, foreshadowing, etc.

EBI Brief for the Reciprocal Teaching

Tutoring Buddy

Tutoring Buddy Letter Sounds (TBLS) is a computer-aided teaching tool designed to teach letter sound correspondence using incremental rehearsal. The program has been used successfully with children between the ages of 4 and 6. Using TBLS interventionists preform a brief assessment of letter sound knowledge and the software selects known and unknown letters for instruction. TBLS is a multi-purpose tool. It can be used to:

  1. Identify students who would most benefit from supplemental instruction (screening takes about 1 minute per student on average)
  2. Teach letter-sound correspondence effectively and efficiently (on average 5 minutes per session)
  3. Monitor student response to the intervention- progress-monitoring data is collected and charted automatically.
  4. Inform instruction by showing teachers which letter sounds are known by none, some, and all students.

Setting: Individual

Focus Area: Acquisition and Fluency

EBI Brief Template Tutoring Buddy

Tutoring Buddy Evidence Brief


Reading Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS)

Reading PALS is a whole-class peer-tutoring program that can be used with students from kindergarten through sixth grade and in high school. Students work on grade-level reading skills. The focus in kindergarten and first grade is on word recognition and fluency. The emphasis in second through sixth grade and in high school is fluency and reading comprehension. The PALS model allows for students to practice reading skills with immediate feedback and to have extensive reading practice.

Train Diversely

Academic or behavior problems may stem from lack of generalization. The student may know the skill but has not learned to generalize it to a new environment. Training and instruction can be adjusted to maximize potential for generalization. Trainers need to cautiously keep the balance between behavior acquisition (learning the behavior) and behavior robustness (how many environments can the trained behavior be used in?) Four ways to alter training in order to facilitate generalization: use sufficient stimulus exemplars, use sufficient response exemplars, make antecedents less discriminable, and make consequences less discriminable.


Incorporate Functional Mediators

Academic or behavior problems may stem from lack of generalization. The student may know the skill but has not learned to generalize it to a new environment. This method incorporates teaching with artificial cues (cues that are not naturally used in generalizing environment) which include using physical object cues, social cues, self-regulated physical object cues, and self-regulated verbal cues.

  • Full Intervention Brief: Incorporate Functional Mediators

    Exploit Functional Contingencies

    Academic or behavior problems may stem from lack of generalization. The student may know the skill but has not learned to generalize it to a new environment. This generalization technique utilizes consequences found naturally in or artificially added to the environment in order to promote generalization of behavior. There are four ways to exploit natural functional contingencies: identify natural consequences, recruit natural consequences, modify maladaptive consequences, and reinforce occurrences of generalization.

  • Full Intervention Brief: Exploit Functional Contingencies

    Reinforce Natural Occurrences

    Academic problems may stem from lack of generalization. The student may know the skill but has not learned to generalize it to a new environment. When that student naturally shows signs of generalization, reinforce the generalization.

  • Full Intervention Brief: Reinforce Natural Occurrences
  • Modeling Videos: Video 1