- Behavior Assessment

 

Paired Stimulus Preference Assessment

The success of reinforcement-based interventions is dependent upon an educator’s ability to determine reinforcing stimuli that function as powerful rewards/consequences. Class-wide rewards might not be rewarding for all students, especially those who are at an increased risk for maladaptive academic and social behaviors. The application of preferred stimuli can serve as a powerful reward that increase a student’s success of adopting appropriate alternative academic and social behaviors. Paired stimulus (PS) preference assessment is a no cost diagnostic tool that generates a ranked order list of preferences for a specific individual. PS assessments allow the student to rank stimuli that are most preferred among an array of options. Various stimuli can be utilized as choices in the preference assessment including: tangibles, opportunities for attention, and preferred activities. Choices can be presented in verbal, pictorial or written formats.

EBA Brief for Choice-Based Stimulus Preference Assessment
Paired Stimulus Preference Assessment (PS)

Paired Stimulus Preference Assessment Form

Multiple Stimulus Preference Assessment without Replacement (MSWO)

The success of reinforcement-based interventions is dependent upon an educator’s ability to determine reinforcing stimuli that function as powerful rewards/consequences. Class-wide rewards might not be rewarding
for all students, especially those who are at an increased risk for maladaptive academic and social behaviors.The application of preferred stimuli can serve as a powerful reward that increases a student’s success of adopting
appropriate alternative academic and social behaviors. Multiple Stimulus Preference Assessment without Replacement (MSWO) is a no cost diagnostic tool that generates a ranked order list of preferences for a specific
individual. MSWO assessments allow the student to rank stimuli that are most preferred among an array of options. Various stimuli can be utilized as choices in the preference assessment including: tangibles, opportunities for attention, and preferred activities. Choices can be presented in verbal, pictorial or written formats.

EBA Brief for Choice-Based Stimulus Preference Assessment
Multiple Stimulus Preference Assessment without Replacement (MSWO)

MSWO Form

Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS)

The Student Risk Screening Scale is a brief, no-cost, user-friendly screening tool designed to identify school-aged students with externalizing problems. The SRSS includes the following seven items: (a) steal; (b) lie, cheat, sneak; (c) behavior problem; (d) peer rejection; (e) low academic achievement; (f) negative attitude; and (g) aggressive behavior. These items are rated on a four-point Likert-type scale (never = 0, occasionally = 1, sometimes = 2, frequently = 3). Total scores are summed (range = 0–21, with higher scores indicating higher risk) and used to classify students into one of three risk categories established by publishers: low (0–3), moderate (4–8), or high (9–21). The SSRS can be completed by teachers 6-8 weeks after the onset of the academic years and requires approximately 10 to 15 minutes to rate all students within a classroom.

Brief for the Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS)

Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)

The SDQ is a brief behavioral screener for 4-17 year olds created by Goodman in 1997. This measure can be used as a screener for risk for psychiatric disorders. The SDQ focuses on positive attributes as well as risk symptoms regarding the child or adolescent’s behavior in the past six months. There are multiple versions of the measure: teacher report for ages 4-11 and 11-17, parent report for ages 4-17, and child self-report for 11-17 year olds. Additionally, there is an early childhood SDQ for 2-4 year olds. Each questionnaire includes 25 items. An overall Total Difficulties Score is produced, along with five subscale scores: Emotional Symptoms, Conduct Problems, Hyperactivity/Inattention, Relationship Problems, and Prosocial Behavior. Optional Internalizing and Externalizing scales may also be produced. An optional impact supplement is also included on the longer form version which provides further information about chronicity, distress, social impairment, and burden to others. There are also follow-up versions of the questionnaire, which include additional questions along with a shorter time period to detect change after intervention. The SDQ has been translated into over ninety languages.

EBI Brief for Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)

Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff (FACTS)

The FACTS (March et al., 2000) is a brief semi-structured functional assessment interview form, intended to support identification of (a) problem behaviors to be targeted for intervention, (b) the antecedents of these target behaviors, and (c) the consequences that have maintained these behaviors via positive or negative reinforcement. The FACTS is intended to inform the development of behavior intervention plans, as data may be used to select or design interventions that are aligned with the function of a particular student’s behavior.

The manner in which the FACTS is used in a school setting partly depends on the stakes of the decision at hand. If the decision is high stakes, such as a manifestation determination or the development of a Tier 3 behavior intervention plan, then the FACTS should be used as one of several data collection methods within a broader multi-method, multi-informant functional behavior assessment (FBA) process. In this scenario, the FACTS should likely be used as an initial assessment, with collected information used to inform future assessment efforts. For instance, the FACTS could be used to identify routines within which problem behavior is most likely, and thus should be targeted for systematic direct observations. If the decision is comparatively lower stakes, such as the selection of a Tier 2 intervention, then the FACTS may be used as a sole source of functional information. Use of the FACTS at Tier 2 as a sole FBA method is a somewhat common practice in many schools implementing Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS). The efficiency of the measure supports its use at scale across a large number of students without inappropriately taxing limited staff time and resources.

EBA Brief for Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff (FACTS)

Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS)

The Behavior and Emotional Screening System is an instrument designed to assist school personnel and other care providers determine the behavioral and emotional strengths and weaknesses of students between the ages of 3 and 18. This instrument is part of the Behavior Assessment System for Children 2nd Edition (Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007). The measure consists of items relating to four dimensions of behavioral and emotional functioning including, Adaptive Skills, Externalizing Problems, Internalizing Problems, and School Problems. There are parent, teacher, and student forms available with each ranging from 25 to 30 items. Though it is possible to obtain student information on each dimension of the measure, a total score is typically used to identify those students with and at-risk for developing behavioral, emotional, and academic problems. The total score is computed by taking the sum of all responses though it is important to note that a raw total score can be difficult to interpret. As such, the scores are converted in to a standard score that allows the responses to be more readily compared to the broader population. Raters do not require formal training and there are methods of support to assist students and parents with reading needs.

EBI Brief for Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS)

Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener (SAEBRS)

The SAEBRS is a brief tool supported by research for use in universal screening for behavioral and emotional risk. The measure falls within a broad class of highly efficient tools, suitable for teacher use in evaluating and rating all students on common behavioral criteria (Severson, Walker, Hope-Doolittle, Kratochwill, & Gresham, 2007). The SAEBRS is designed for use in the K-12 setting. It is grounded within a conceptual model, which states that a student’s success in school is not only related to his or her academic achievement, but also success within multiple behavioral domains. Research suggests the SAEBRS may be used to evaluate student functioning in terms of overall general behavior, as assessed by a broad Total Behavior (19 items). Research further suggests the SAEBRS may be used to evaluate student behavior within multiple inter-related narrow domains, as assessed by the Social Behavior (6 items), Academic Behavior (6 items), and Emotional Behavior (7 items) subscales.

EBA Brief for Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener (SAEBRS) 

SAEBRS – Teacher Form

Direct Behavior Rating Single Item Scale (DBR-SIS)

The method of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) emerged in the literature as a hybrid of both rating scale and systematic direct observation (SDO) procedures (Chafouleas, Christ, & Riley-Tillman, 2009; Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman, & McDougal, 2002; Riley-Tillman, Chafouleas, Briesch, 2007). The researchers who conceptualized DBR as a method of assessment provide the following definition.

“DBR is an evaluative rating that is generated at the time and place that behavior occurs by those persons who are naturally occurring in the context of interest…DBR instrumentation and procedures combine the benefits of both behavior rating scales (e.g., efficient data recording) and SDO (e.g., data recording that occurs at the time and place of behavior)…the defining characteristics of DBR include the directness of observation, observation of specific behaviors, and the evaluative component of ratings” (Christ et al., 2009, p. 205).

The defining features of DBR are specified in the tool’s name.

  • Direct – ratings are recorded immediately at the end of an observation.
  • Behavior – specific behaviors are rated, such as Academic Engagement and Disruptive Behavior.
  • Rating – ratings are conducted repeatedly in a systematic and standardized manner similar to behavior rating scales.

How is a DBR completed (see DBR-SIS at the end of this brief)?

  1. Complete the top of the DBR form, specifying the student, date, and day of the week under consideration.
  2. Define the rating period (e.g., 9:00 – 9:45am) and activity (e.g. independent work) during which the observation will be conducted. The rater will evaluate behaviors observed within this time and context immediately following the rating period.
  3. Determine which behaviors are to be rated and review operational definitions. The “Standard DBR-SIS Form” includes Academic Engagement, Disruptive Behavior, and Respectful Behavior. Additional behaviors (e.g., tantrums) can be rated, but must be operationally defined and reviewed prior to observation.
  4. Rate the student’s behavior immediately following the observation period.

EBA Brief for Direct  Behavior Rating Single Item Scale (DBR-SIS)

DBR-SIS Standard Form